Prozac is a brand name for the medication fluoxetine, which belongs to a class of drugs called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). It is primarily prescribed to treat depression, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), bulimia nervosa, and premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Here is some information about Prozac:


Treatment of Mental Health Conditions

Prozac (fluoxetine) is commonly prescribed to treat various mental health conditions. It works by increasing the levels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter in the brain that is involved in regulating mood, emotions, and behavior. By increasing serotonin levels, Prozac helps improve symptoms associated with depression, anxiety, and other related disorders.

Dosage and Usage

Prozac is available in capsule form and is typically taken once daily, usually in the morning. The dosage will depend on the specific condition being treated, its severity, and individual response. It is important to follow the dosage instructions provided by a healthcare professional and not exceed the recommended dose.

The full effects of Prozac may not be felt immediately, and it can take several weeks for the medication to reach its maximum effectiveness. It is important to continue taking Prozac as directed, even if you start feeling better, to ensure long-term management of symptoms.

Precautions and Potential Side Effects

Prozac is generally well-tolerated, but it may cause some side effects. Common side effects can include nausea, insomnia, headache, drowsiness, dry mouth, and sexual dysfunction. These side effects are usually mild and may subside over time as your body adjusts to the medication. It is important to discuss any persistent or severe side effects with your healthcare professional.

Prozac may interact with other medications, so it is important to inform your healthcare professional about all the medications you are currently taking, including over-the-counter drugs and herbal supplements. It is also important to avoid abruptly stopping Prozac without medical guidance, as this may lead to withdrawal symptoms.

Consultation with Healthcare Professional

Prozac is a prescription medication, and its use should be supervised by a healthcare professional. It is important to consult with a doctor or psychiatrist to discuss your specific condition, determine the appropriate dosage, and monitor your response to the medication. Regular follow-up appointments are typically recommended to assess your progress and make any necessary adjustments to the treatment plan.

WARNING: Please consult with a healthcare professional or doctor for personalized advice and guidance regarding the use of Prozac or any other medication for the treatment of mental health conditions. They will be able to provide specific instructions based on your medical history and individual needs.


  1. ^ Hubbard JR, Martin PR (2001). Substance Abuse in the Mentally and Physically Disabled. CRC Press. p. 26. ISBN 978-0824744977.
  2. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h “Fluoxetine Hydrochloride”. The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 2 December 2015.
  3. Jump up to:a b c d e “Prozac- fluoxetine hydrochloride capsule”DailyMed. 23 December 2021. Retrieved 11 March 2023.
  4. Jump up to:a b “Sarafem (fluoxetine hydrochloride tablets ) for oral use Initial U.S. Approval: 1987”DailyMed. Retrieved 12 March 2023.
  5. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j “Prozac Fluoxetine Hydrochloride” (PDF). TGA eBusiness Services. Eli Lilly Australia Pty. Limited. 9 October 2013. Archived from the original on 25 April 2017. Retrieved 23 November 2013.
  6. Jump up to:a b Altamura AC, Moro AR, Percudani M (March 1994). “Clinical pharmacokinetics of fluoxetine”. Clinical Pharmacokinetics26 (3): 201–14. doi:10.2165/00003088-199426030-00004PMID 8194283S2CID 1406955.
  7. ^ “Depressive Disorders in Children and Adolescents – Pediatrics”Merck Manuals Professional Edition. Retrieved 25 December 2020.
  8. Jump up to:a b c Gao SY, Wu QJ, Sun C, Zhang TN, Shen ZQ, Liu CX, et al. (November 2018). “Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor use during early pregnancy and congenital malformations: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies of more than 9 million births”BMC Medicine16 (1): 205. doi:10.1186/s12916-018-1193-5PMC 6231277PMID 30415641.
  9. Jump up to:a b De Vries C, Gadzhanova S, Sykes MJ, Ward M, Roughead E (March 2021). “A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Considering the Risk for Congenital Heart Defects of Antidepressant Classes and Individual Antidepressants”Drug Safety44 (3): 291–312. doi:10.1007/s40264-020-01027-xPMID 33354752S2CID 229357583.
  10. ^ “Fluoxetine Pregnancy and Breastfeeding Warnings”Archived from the original on 31 August 2017. Retrieved 2 December 2015.
  11. ^ Myers RL (2007). The 100 most important chemical compounds: a reference guide (1st ed.). Westport, CN: Greenwood Press. p. 128ISBN 978-0-313-33758-1.
  12. ^ World Health Organization (2021). World Health Organization model list of essential medicines: 22nd list (2021). Geneva: World Health Organization. hdl:10665/345533. WHO/MHP/HPS/EML/2021.02.
  13. ^ “The Top 300 of 2020”ClinCalc. Retrieved 7 October 2022.
  14. ^ “Fluoxetine – Drug Usage Statistics”ClinCalc. Retrieved 7 October 2022.
  15. ^ “Symbyax- olanzapine and fluoxetine hydrochloride capsule”DailyMed. 23 December 2021. Retrieved 8 October 2022.
  16. ^ “FDA Approves Symbyax as First Medication for Treatment-Resistant Depression” (Press release). Eli Lilly. Retrieved 17 March 2021.
  17. ^ Hagerman RJ (16 September 1999). Neurodevelopmental Disorders: Diagnosis and TreatmentOxford University PressISBN 978-0-19-512314-2Dech and Budow (1991) were among the first to report the anecdotal use of fluoxetine in a case of PWS to control behavior problems, appetite, and trichotillomania.
  18. ^ Truven Health Analytics, Inc. DrugPoint® System (Internet) [cited 2013 Oct 4]. Greenwood Village, CO: Thomsen Healthcare; 2013.
  19. ^ Australian Medicines Handbook 2013. The Australian Medicines Handbook Unit Trust; 2013.
  20. ^ British National Formulary (BNF) 65. Pharmaceutical Pr; 2013.
  21. ^ Husted DS, Shapira NA, Murphy TK, Mann GD, Ward HE, Goodman WK (2007). “Effect of comorbid tics on a clinically meaningful response to 8-week open-label trial of fluoxetine in obsessive compulsive disorder”. Journal of Psychiatric Research41 (3–4): 332–337. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2006.05.007PMID 16860338.
  22. ^ “Fluoxetine Hydrochloride”The American Society of Health-System PharmacistsArchived from the original on 11 April 2011. Retrieved 3 April 2011.
  23. ^ “NIMH•Eating Disorders”The National Institute of Mental Health. National Institute of Health. 2011. Archived from the original on 19 August 2011. Retrieved 25 November 2013.
  24. ^ “Treating social anxiety disorder”. Harvard Health Publishing. Archived from the original on 23 September 2020. Retrieved 15 May 2019.
  25. ^ Williams K, Brignell A, Randall M, Silove N, Hazell P (August 2013). “Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for autism spectrum disorders (ASD)”. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews8 (8): CD004677. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004677.pub3PMID 23959778.
  26. ^ Myers SM (August 2007). “The status of pharmacotherapy for autism spectrum disorders”. Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy8 (11): 1579–1603. doi:10.1517/14656566.8.11.1579PMID 17685878S2CID 24674542.
  27. ^ Doyle CA, McDougle CJ (August 2012). “Pharmacotherapy to control behavioral symptoms in children with autism”. Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy13 (11): 1615–1629. doi:10.1517/14656566.2012.674110PMID 22550944S2CID 32144885.
  28. ^ Benvenuto A, Battan B, Porfirio MC, Curatolo P (February 2013). “Pharmacotherapy of autism spectrum disorders”. Brain & Development35 (2): 119–127. doi:10.1016/j.braindev.2012.03.015PMID 22541665S2CID 19614718.
  29. ^ Mahdi M, Hermán L, Réthelyi JM, Bálint BL (March 2022). “Potential Role of the Antidepressants Fluoxetine and Fluvoxamine in the Treatment of COVID-19”International Journal of Molecular Sciences23 (7): 3812. doi:10.3390/ijms23073812PMC 8998734PMID 35409171.
  30. ^ Cipriani A, Furukawa TA, Salanti G, Chaimani A, Atkinson LZ, Ogawa Y, et al. (April 2018). “Comparative efficacy and acceptability of 21 antidepressant drugs for the acute treatment of adults with major depressive disorder: a systematic review and network meta-analysis”Lancet391 (10128): 1357–1366. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32802-7PMC 5889788PMID 29477251.
  31. ^ Magni LR, Purgato M, Gastaldon C, Papola D, Furukawa TA, Cipriani A, Barbui C (July 2013). “Fluoxetine versus other types of pharmacotherapy for depression”. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews2013 (7): CD004185. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004185.pub3PMID 24353997.
  32. ^ “Prozac may be the best treatment for young people with depression – but more research is needed”NIHR Evidence (Plain English summary). National Institute for Health and Care Research. 12 October 2020. doi:10.3310/alert_41917S2CID 242952585.
  33. ^ Zhou X, Teng T, Zhang Y, Del Giovane C, Furukawa TA, Weisz JR, et al. (July 2020). “Comparative efficacy and acceptability of antidepressants, psychotherapies, and their combination for acute treatment of children and adolescents with depressive disorder: a systematic review and network meta-analysis”The Lancet. Psychiatry7 (7): 581–601. doi:10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30137-1PMC 7303954PMID 32563306.
  34. Jump up to:a b Boaden K, Tomlinson A, Cortese S, Cipriani A (2 September 2020). “Antidepressants in Children and Adolescents: Meta-Review of Efficacy, Tolerability and Suicidality in Acute Treatment”Frontiers in Psychiatry11: 717. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00717PMC 7493620PMID 32982805.
  35. ^ Hetrick SE, McKenzie JE, Bailey AP, Sharma V, Moller CI, Badcock PB, et al. (Cochrane Common Mental Disorders Group) (May 2021). “New generation antidepressants for depression in children and adolescents: a network meta-analysis”The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews2021 (5): CD013674. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD013674.pub2PMC 8143444PMID 34029378.
  36. ^ Gøtzsche PC, Healy D (November 2022). “Restoring the two pivotal fluoxetine trials in children and adolescents with depression”. The International Journal of Risk & Safety in Medicine (Systematic review). 33 (4): 385–408. doi:10.3233/JRS-210034PMID 35786661S2CID 250241461.
  37. ^ Etain B, Bonnet-Perrin E (May–June 2001). “[Value of fluoxetine in obsessive-compulsive disorder in the adult: review of the literature]”L’Encephale27 (3): 280–289. PMID 11488259.
  38. ^ “Antidepressants for children and teenagers: what works for anxiety and depression?”NIHR Evidence (Plain English summary). National Institute for Health and Care Research. 3 November 2022. doi:10.3310/nihrevidence_53342S2CID 253347210.
  39. ^ Correll CU, Cortese S, Croatto G, Monaco F, Krinitski D, Arrondo G, et al. (June 2021). “Efficacy and acceptability of pharmacological, psychosocial, and brain stimulation interventions in children and adolescents with mental disorders: an umbrella review”World Psychiatry20 (2): 244–275. doi:10.1002/wps.20881PMC 8129843PMID 34002501.
  40. ^ Geller DA, March J, et al. (The AACAP Committee on Quality Issues (CQI)) (January 2012). “Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder”Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry51 (1): 98–113. doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2011.09.019PMID 22176943.
  41. ^ Aigner M, Treasure J, Kaye W, Kasper S (September 2011). “World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for the pharmacological treatment of eating disorders” (PDF). The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry12 (6): 400–43. doi:10.3109/15622975.2011.602720PMID 21961502S2CID 16733060Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 August 2014.
  42. ^ Rapkin AJ, Lewis EI (November 2013). “Treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder”Women’s Health9 (6): 537–56. doi:10.2217/whe.13.62PMID 24161307.
  43. ^ Carr RR, Ensom MH (April 2002). “Fluoxetine in the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder”. The Annals of Pharmacotherapy36 (4): 713–7. doi:10.1345/aph.1A265PMID 11918525S2CID 37088388.
  44. ^ Romano S, Judge R, Dillon J, Shuler C, Sundell K (April 1999). “The role of fluoxetine in the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder”. Clinical Therapeutics21 (4): 615–33, discussion 613. doi:10.1016/S0149-2918(00)88315-0PMID 10363729.
  45. ^ Pearlstein T, Yonkers KA (July 2002). “Review of fluoxetine and its clinical applications in premenstrual dysphoric disorder”. Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy3 (7): 979–91. doi:10.1517/14656566.3.7.979PMID 12083997S2CID 9455962.
  46. ^ Cohen LS, Miner C, Brown EW, Freeman E, Halbreich U, Sundell K, McCray S (September 2002). “Premenstrual daily fluoxetine for premenstrual dysphoric disorder: a placebo-controlled, clinical trial using computerized diaries”. Obstetrics and Gynecology100 (3): 435–44. doi:10.1016/S0029-7844(02)02166-XPMID 12220761S2CID 753100.
  47. Jump up to:a b Felthous A, Stanford M (2021). “34.The Pharmacotherapy of Impulsive Aggression in Psychopathic Disorders”. In Felthous A, Sass H (eds.). The Wiley International Handbook on Psychopathic Disorders and the Law (2nd ed.). Wiley. pp. 810–13. ISBN 978-1119159322.
  48. ^ Coccaro EF, Lee RJ, Kavoussi RJ (April 2009). “A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of fluoxetine in patients with intermittent explosive disorder”. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry70 (5): 653–62. doi:10.4088/JCP.08m04150PMID 19389333.
  49. ^ Coccaro EF, Kavoussi RJ (December 1997). “Fluoxetine and impulsive aggressive behavior in personality-disordered subjects”. Archives of General Psychiatry54 (12): 1081–8. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1997.01830240035005PMID 9400343.
  50. ^ George DT, Phillips MJ, Lifshitz M, Lionetti TA, Spero DE, Ghassemzedeh N, et al. (January 2011). “Fluoxetine treatment of alcoholic perpetrators of domestic violence: a 12-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled intervention study”The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry72 (1): 60–5. doi:10.4088/JCP.09m05256gryPMC 3026856PMID 20673556.
  51. Jump up to:a b c d Serralde-Zúñiga AE, Gonzalez Garay AG, Rodríguez-Carmona Y, Melendez G, et al. (Cochrane Metabolic and Endocrine Disorders Group) (October 2019). “Fluoxetine for adults who are overweight or obese”The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews10 (10): CD011688. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD011688.pub2PMC 6792438PMID 31613390.
  52. ^ Taurines R, Gerlach M, Warnke A, Thome J, Wewetzer C (September 2011). “Pharmacotherapy in depressed children and adolescents”. The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry12 (Suppl 1): 11–5. doi:10.3109/15622975.2011.600295PMID 21905988S2CID 18186328.
  53. ^ Cohen D (2007). “Should the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in child and adolescent depression be banned?”. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics76 (1): 5–14. doi:10.1159/000096360PMID 17170559S2CID 1112192.
  54. ^ Morrison JL, Riggs KW, Rurak DW (March 2005). “Fluoxetine during pregnancy: impact on fetal development”. Reproduction, Fertility, and Development17 (6): 641–50. doi:10.1071/RD05030PMID 16263070.
  55. Jump up to:a b c Brayfield, A, ed. (13 August 2013). Fluoxetine HydrochlorideMartindale: The Complete Drug Reference. London, UK: Pharmaceutical Press. Retrieved 24 November 2013.(subscription required)
  56. ^ “Fluoxetine in pregnancy: slight risk of heart defects in unborn child” (PDF). MHRAMedicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. 10 September 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 December 2013. Retrieved 23 November 2013.
  57. ^ Rowe T (June 2015). “Drugs in Pregnancy”Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada37 (6): 489–92. doi:10.1016/S1701-2163(15)30222-XPMID 26334601.
  58. ^ Kendall-Tackett K, Hale TW (May 2010). “The use of antidepressants in pregnant and breastfeeding women: a review of recent studies”. Journal of Human Lactation26 (2): 187–95. doi:10.1177/0890334409342071PMID 19652194S2CID 29112093.
  59. ^ Taylor D, Paton C, Shitij K (2012). The Maudsley prescribing guidelines in psychiatry. West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-470-97948-8.
  60. ^ Bland RD, Clarke TL, Harden LB (February 1976). “Rapid infusion of sodium bicarbonate and albumin into high-risk premature infants soon after birth: a controlled, prospective trial”. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology124 (3): 263–7. doi:10.1016/0002-9378(76)90154-xPMID 2013.
  61. ^ Koda-Kimble MA, Alldredge BK (2012). Applied therapeutics: the clinical use of drugs (10th ed.). Baltimore: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 978-1609137137.
  62. ^ Clark MS, Jansen K, Bresnahan M (November 2013). “Clinical inquiry: How do antidepressants affect sexual function?”. The Journal of Family Practice62 (11): 660–1. PMID 24288712.
  63. ^ Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee (PRAC) (11 June 2019). “New product information wording – Extracts from PRAC recommendations on signals” (PDF). European Medicines Agency. EMA/PRAC/265221/2019.
  64. ^ “Minutes of PRAC meeting of 13–16 May 2019” (PDF).
  65. ^ Bhat V, Kennedy SH (June 2017). “Recognition and management of antidepressant discontinuation syndrome”Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience42 (4): E7–E8. doi:10.1503/jpn.170022PMC 5487275PMID 28639936.
  66. ^ Warner CH, Bobo W, Warner C, Reid S, Rachal J (August 2006). “Antidepressant discontinuation syndrome”. American Family Physician74 (3): 449–56. PMID 16913164.
  67. ^ Gabriel M, Sharma V (May 2017). “Antidepressant discontinuation syndrome”CMAJ189 (21): E747. doi:10.1503/cmaj.160991PMC 5449237PMID 28554948.
  68. ^ Ross LE, Grigoriadis S, Mamisashvili L, Vonderporten EH, Roerecke M, Rehm J, et al. (April 2013). “Selected pregnancy and delivery outcomes after exposure to antidepressant medication: a systematic review and meta-analysis”JAMA Psychiatry70 (4): 436–43. doi:10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2013.684PMID 23446732.
  69. ^ Lattimore KA, Donn SM, Kaciroti N, Kemper AR, Neal CR, Vazquez DM (September 2005). “Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) use during pregnancy and effects on the fetus and newborn: a meta-analysis”Journal of Perinatology25 (9): 595–604. doi:10.1038/ 16015372.
  70. ^ Gao SY, Wu QJ, Zhang TN, Shen ZQ, Liu CX, Xu X, et al. (October 2017). “Fluoxetine and congenital malformations: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies”British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology83 (10): 2134–2147. doi:10.1111/bcp.13321PMC 5595931PMID 28513059.
  71. ^ Leslie LK, Newman TB, Chesney PJ, Perrin JM (July 2005). “The Food and Drug Administration’s deliberations on antidepressant use in pediatric patients”Pediatrics116 (1): 195–204. doi:10.1542/peds.2005-0074PMC 1550709PMID 15995053.
  72. ^ Fornaro M, Anastasia A, Valchera A, Carano A, Orsolini L, Vellante F, et al. (3 May 2019). “The FDA “Black Box” Warning on Antidepressant Suicide Risk in Young Adults: More Harm Than Benefits?”Frontiers in Psychiatry10: 294. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00294PMC 6510161PMID 31130881.
  73. ^ Levenson M, Holland C. “Antidepressants and Suicidality in Adults: Statistical Evaluation. (Presentation at Psychopharmacologic Drugs Advisory Committee; December 13, 2006)”Food and Drug AdministrationArchived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 13 May 2007.
  74. Jump up to:a b Stone MB, Jones ML (17 November 2006). “Clinical Review: Relationship Between Antidepressant Drugs and Suicidality in Adults” (PDF). Overview for December 13 Meeting of Psychopharmacologic Drugs Advisory Committee (PDAC). U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). pp. 11–74. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 March 2007. Retrieved 22 September 2007.
  75. Jump up to:a b Levenson M, Holland C (17 November 2006). “Statistical Evaluation of Suicidality in Adults Treated with Antidepressants” (PDF). Overview for December 13 Meeting of Psychopharmacologic Drugs Advisory Committee (PDAC). U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). pp. 75–140. Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 March 2007. Retrieved 22 September 2007.
  76. ^ Klein DF (April 2006). “The flawed basis for FDA post-marketing safety decisions: the example of anti-depressants and children”. Neuropsychopharmacology31 (4): 689–699. doi:10.1038/sj.npp.1300996PMID 16395296S2CID 12599251.
  77. ^ “Suicidality in Children and Adolescents Being Treated With Antidepressant Medications”. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 3 November 2018.
  78. ^ Wolfson A. “Prozac maker paid millions to secure favorable verdict in mass shooting lawsuit, victims say”USA Today. Retrieved 20 March 2022.
  79. ^ “Prozac Litigation – Link to Suicide, Birth Defects & Class Action” Retrieved 20 March 2022.
  80. ^ Angier N (16 August 1990). “HEALTH; Eli Lilly Facing Million-Dollar Suits On Its Antidepressant Drug Prozac”The New York Times.
  81. ^ “Eli Lilly in storm over Prozac evidence”Financial Times. 30 December 2004. Retrieved 20 March 2022.
  82. ^ Hammad TA (13 September 2004). “Results of the Analysis of Suicidality in Pediatric Trials of Newer Antidepressants” (PDF). Presentation at the Meeting of Psychopharmacologic Drugs Advisory Committee and the Pediatric Advisory Committee on September 13, 2004. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Archived from the original on 28 February 2008. pp. 25, 28. Retrieved 6 January 2008.
  83. ^ Vitiello B, Silva SG, Rohde P, Kratochvil CJ, Kennard BD, Reinecke MA, et al. (April 2009). “Suicidal events in the Treatment for Adolescents With Depression Study (TADS)”The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry70 (5): 741–747. doi:10.4088/JCP.08m04607PMC 2702701PMID 19552869.
  84. ^ Committee on Safety of Medicines Expert Working Group (December 2004). “Report on The Safety of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Antidepressants” (PDF). Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Archived (PDF) from the original on 28 February 2008. Retrieved 25 September 2007.
  85. ^ Gunnell D, Saperia J, Ashby D (February 2005). “Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and suicide in adults: meta-analysis of drug company data from placebo controlled, randomised controlled trials submitted to the MHRA’s safety review”BMJ330 (7488): 385. doi:10.1136/bmj.330.7488.385PMC 549105PMID 15718537.
  86. ^ Cubeddu LX (2016). “Drug-induced Inhibition and Trafficking Disruption of ion Channels: Pathogenesis of QT Abnormalities and Drug-induced Fatal Arrhythmias”Current Cardiology Reviews12 (2): 141–54. doi:10.2174/1573403X12666160301120217PMC 4861943PMID 26926294.
  87. ^ Tisdale JE (May 2016). “Drug-induced QT interval prolongation and torsades de pointes: Role of the pharmacist in risk assessment, prevention and management”Canadian Pharmacists Journal149 (3): 139–52. doi:10.1177/1715163516641136PMC 4860751PMID 27212965.
  88. ^ Castro VM, Clements CC, Murphy SN, Gainer VS, Fava M, Weilburg JB, et al. (January 2013). “QT interval and antidepressant use: a cross sectional study of electronic health records”BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.)346: f288. doi:10.1136/bmj.f288PMC 3558546PMID 23360890.
  89. ^ “Toxicity”FluoxetinePubChem. NCBI. Retrieved 13 March 2015.
  90. ^ Gury C, Cousin F (September 1999). “[Pharmacokinetics of SSRI antidepressants: half-life and clinical applicability]”. L’Encéphale25 (5): 470–6. PMID 10598311.
  91. ^ Janicak PG, Marder SR, Pavuluri MN (26 December 2011). Principles and Practice of Psychopharmacotherapy. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. ISBN 978-1-4511-7877-7A 2-week interval is adequate for all of these drugs, with the exception of fluoxetine. Because of the extended half-life of norfluoxetine, a minimum of 5 weeks should lapse between stopping fluoxetine (20mg/day) and starting an MAOI. With higher daily doses, the interval should be longer.
  92. ^ Dean L, Kane M (2012). “Codeine Therapy and CYP2D6 Genotype”. In Pratt VM, Scott SA, Pirmohamed M, Esquivel B (eds.). Medical Genetics Summaries. Bethesda (MD): National Center for Biotechnology Information (US). PMID 28520350. Retrieved 1 October 2022.
  93. ^ Perananthan V, Buckley NA (2021). “Opioids and antidepressants: which combinations to avoid”Australian Prescriber44 (2): 41–44. doi:10.18773/austprescr.2021.004S2CID 233579988.
  94. ^ Hoffelt C, Gross T (January 2016). “A review of significant pharmacokinetic drug interactions with antidepressants and their management”The Mental Health Clinician6 (1): 35–41. doi:10.9740/mhc.2016.01.035PMC 6009245PMID 29955445.
  95. ^ “Dextromethorphan and fluoxetine Drug Interactions”Drugs.comArchived from the original on 14 August 2017. Retrieved 3 March 2017.
  96. ^ “Fluoxetine and ibuprofen Drug Interactions”Drugs.comArchived from the original on 31 August 2017. Retrieved 3 March 2017.
  97. ^ “UpToDate” Retrieved 10 August 2022.
  98. Jump up to:a b Sager JE, Lutz JD, Foti RS, Davis C, Kunze KL, Isoherranen N (June 2014). “Fluoxetine- and norfluoxetine-mediated complex drug-drug interactions: in vitro to in vivo correlation of effects on CYP2D6, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4”Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics95 (6): 653–62. doi:10.1038/clpt.2014.50PMC 4029899PMID 24569517.
  99. ^ Ciraulo DA, Shader RI, eds. (2011). Pharmacotherapy of DepressionSpringerLink (2nd ed.). New York: Humana Press. doi:10.1007/978-1-60327-435-7ISBN 978-1-60327-434-0.
  100. Jump up to:a b Sandson NB, Armstrong SC, Cozza KL (2005). “An overview of psychotropic drug-drug interactions” (PDF). Psychosomatics46 (5): 464–94. doi:10.1176/appi.psy.46.5.464PMID 16145193S2CID 21838792. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 February 2019.
  101. ^ An extensive list of possible interactions is available in Lexi-Comp (September 2008). “Fluoxetine”The Merck Manual ProfessionalArchived from the original on 3 September 2007.
  102. ^ Boyer EW, Shannon M (March 2005). “The serotonin syndrome”. The New England Journal of Medicine352 (11): 1112–1120. doi:10.1056/NEJMra041867PMID 15784664.
  103. Jump up to:a b “Combining certain opioids and commonly prescribed prescribed antidepressants may increase the risk of overdose” 30 July 2022. Retrieved 30 July 2022.
  104. ^ Hemeryck Alex and Belpaire M. Frans, Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors and Cytochrome P-450 Mediated Drug-Drug Interactions: An Update. Bentham Science Publisher. 2002; 3(1). ISSN:1875-5453.
  105. ^ Roth BL, Driscol J (12 January 2011). “PDSP Ki Database”Psychoactive Drug Screening Program (PDSP). University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and the United States National Institute of Mental Health. Archived from the original on 8 November 2013. Retrieved 24 June 2013.
  106. ^ Owens MJ, Knight DL, Nemeroff CB (September 2001). “Second-generation SSRIs: human monoamine transporter binding profile of escitalopram and R-fluoxetine”. Biological Psychiatry50 (5): 345–50. doi:10.1016/s0006-3223(01)01145-3PMID 11543737S2CID 11247427.
  107. ^ Perry KW, Fuller RW (1997). “Fluoxetine increases norepinephrine release in rat hypothalamus as measured by tissue levels of MHPG-SO4 and microdialysis in conscious rats”. Journal of Neural Transmission104 (8–9): 953–66. doi:10.1007/BF01285563PMID 9451727S2CID 2679296.
  108. ^ Bymaster FP, Zhang W, Carter PA, Shaw J, Chernet E, Phebus L, et al. (April 2002). “Fluoxetine, but not other selective serotonin uptake inhibitors, increases norepinephrine and dopamine extracellular levels in prefrontal cortex”. Psychopharmacology160 (4): 353–61. doi:10.1007/s00213-001-0986-xPMID 11919662S2CID 27296534.
  109. Jump up to:a b Koch S, Perry KW, Nelson DL, Conway RG, Threlkeld PG, Bymaster FP (December 2002). “R-fluoxetine increases extracellular DA, NE, as well as 5-HT in rat prefrontal cortex and hypothalamus: an in vivo microdialysis and receptor binding study”Neuropsychopharmacology27 (6): 949–59. doi:10.1016/S0893-133X(02)00377-9PMID 12464452.
  110. Jump up to:a b c Pinna G, Costa E, Guidotti A (February 2009). “SSRIs act as selective brain steroidogenic stimulants (SBSSs) at low doses that are inactive on 5-HT reuptake”Current Opinion in Pharmacology9 (1): 24–30. doi:10.1016/j.coph.2008.12.006PMC 2670606PMID 19157982.
  111. ^ Miguelez C, Fernandez-Aedo I, Torrecilla M, Grandoso L, Ugedo L (2009). “alpha(2)-Adrenoceptors mediate the acute inhibitory effect of fluoxetine on locus coeruleus noradrenergic neurons”. Neuropharmacology56 (6–7): 1068–73. doi:10.1016/j.neuropharm.2009.03.004PMID 19298831S2CID 7485264.
  112. ^ Pälvimäki EP, Roth BL, Majasuo H, Laakso A, Kuoppamäki M, Syvälahti E, Hietala J (August 1996). “Interactions of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors with the serotonin 5-HT2c receptor”. Psychopharmacology126 (3): 234–40. doi:10.1007/BF02246453PMID 8876023S2CID 24889381.
  113. ^ Brunton PJ (June 2016). “Neuroactive steroids and stress axis regulation: Pregnancy and beyond”. The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology160: 160–8. doi:10.1016/j.jsbmb.2015.08.003PMID 26259885S2CID 43499796.
  114. Jump up to:a b Robinson RT, Drafts BC, Fisher JL (March 2003). “Fluoxetine increases GABA(A) receptor activity through a novel modulatory site”. The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics304 (3): 978–84. doi:10.1124/jpet.102.044834PMID 12604672S2CID 16061756.
  115. ^ Narita N, Hashimoto K, Tomitaka S, Minabe Y (June 1996). “Interactions of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors with subtypes of sigma receptors in rat brain”. European Journal of Pharmacology307 (1): 117–9. doi:10.1016/0014-2999(96)00254-3PMID 8831113.
  116. ^ Hashimoto K (September 2009). “Sigma-1 receptors and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: clinical implications of their relationship”. Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry9 (3): 197–204. doi:10.2174/1871524910909030197PMID 20021354.
  117. ^ “Fluoxetine”IUPHAR Guide to Pharmacology. IUPHAR. Archived from the original on 10 November 2014. Retrieved 10 November 2014.
  118. ^ “Calcium activated chloride channel”IUPHAR Guide to Pharmacology. IUPHAR. Archived from the original on 10 November 2014. Retrieved 10 November 2014.
  119. ^ Gulbins E, Palmada M, Reichel M, Lüth A, Böhmer C, Amato D, et al. (July 2013). “Acid sphingomyelinase-ceramide system mediates effects of antidepressant drugs” (PDF). Nature Medicine19 (7): 934–8. doi:10.1038/nm.3214PMID 23770692S2CID 205391407.
  120. ^ Brunkhorst R, Friedlaender F, Ferreirós N, Schwalm S, Koch A, Grammatikos G, et al. (October 2015). “Alterations of the Ceramide Metabolism in the Peri-Infarct Cortex Are Independent of the Sphingomyelinase Pathway and Not Influenced by the Acid Sphingomyelinase Inhibitor Fluoxetine”Neural Plasticity2015: 503079. doi:10.1155/2015/503079PMC 4641186PMID 26605090.
  121. Jump up to:a b “Fluoxetine” Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  122. ^ Hitchings A, Lonsdale D, Burrage D, Baker E (2015). Top 100 drugs : clinical pharmacology and practical prescribingISBN 978-0-7020-55-16-4.
  123. ^ Carhart-Harris RL, Nutt DJ (September 2017). “Serotonin and brain function: a tale of two receptors”Journal of Psychopharmacology31 (9): 1091–1120. doi:10.1177/0269881117725915PMC 5606297PMID 28858536.
  124. ^ Harmer CJ, Duman RS, Cowen PJ (May 2017). “How do antidepressants work? New perspectives for refining future treatment approaches”The Lancet. Psychiatry4 (5): 409–418. doi:10.1016/S2215-0366(17)30015-9PMC 5410405PMID 28153641.
  125. ^ Benfield P, Heel RC, Lewis SP (December 1986). “Fluoxetine. A review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and therapeutic efficacy in depressive illness”. Drugs32 (6): 481–508. doi:10.2165/00003495-198632060-00002PMID 2878798.
  126. ^ Kroeze, Y et al. “Long-term consequences of chronic fluoxetine exposure on the expression of myelination-related genes in the rat hippocampus.” Translational psychiatry vol. 5,9 e642. 22 Sep. 2015, doi:10.1038/tp.2015.145
  127. Jump up to:a b “Prozac Pharmacology, Pharmacokinetics, Studies, Metabolism”. 2007. Archived from the original on 10 April 2007. Retrieved 14 April 2007.
  128. ^ Mandrioli R, Forti GC, Raggi MA (February 2006). “Fluoxetine metabolism and pharmacological interactions: the role of cytochrome p450”. Current Drug Metabolism7 (2): 127–33. doi:10.2174/138920006775541561PMID 16472103.
  129. ^ Hiemke C, Härtter S (January 2000). “Pharmacokinetics of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors”. Pharmacology & Therapeutics85 (1): 11–28. doi:10.1016/S0163-7258(99)00048-0PMID 10674711.
  130. Jump up to:a b Burke WJ, Hendricks SE, McArthur-Miller D, Jacques D, Bessette D, McKillup T, et al. (August 2000). “Weekly dosing of fluoxetine for the continuation phase of treatment of major depression: results of a placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial”. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology20 (4): 423–7. doi:10.1097/00004714-200008000-00006PMID 10917403.
  131. ^ “Drug Treatments in Psychiatry: Antidepressants”Newcastle University School of Neurology, Neurobiology and Psychiatry. 2005. Archived from the original on 17 April 2007. Retrieved 14 April 2007.
  132. Jump up to:a b Pérez V, Puiigdemont D, Gilaberte I, Alvarez E, Artigas F, et al. (Grup de Recerca en Trastorns Afectius) (February 2001). “Augmentation of fluoxetine’s antidepressant action by pindolol: analysis of clinical, pharmacokinetic, and methodologic factors”. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology21 (1): 36–45. doi:10.1097/00004714-200102000-00008hdl:10261/34714PMID 11199945S2CID 13542714.
  133. ^ Brunswick DJ, Amsterdam JD, Fawcett J, Quitkin FM, Reimherr FW, Rosenbaum JF, Beasley CM (April 2002). “Fluoxetine and norfluoxetine plasma concentrations during relapse-prevention treatment”. Journal of Affective Disorders68 (2–3): 243–9. doi:10.1016/S0165-0327(00)00333-5PMID 12063152.
  134. Jump up to:a b Henry ME, Schmidt ME, Hennen J, Villafuerte RA, Butman ML, Tran P, et al. (August 2005). “A comparison of brain and serum pharmacokinetics of R-fluoxetine and racemic fluoxetine: A 19-F MRS study”Neuropsychopharmacology30 (8): 1576–83. doi:10.1038/sj.npp.1300749PMID 15886723.
  135. ^ Papakostas GI, Perlis RH, Scalia MJ, Petersen TJ, Fava M (February 2006). “A meta-analysis of early sustained response rates between antidepressants and placebo for the treatment of major depressive disorder”. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology26 (1): 56–60. doi:10.1097/ 16415707S2CID 42816815.
  136. ^ Lemberger L, Bergstrom RF, Wolen RL, Farid NA, Enas GG, Aronoff GR (March 1985). “Fluoxetine: clinical pharmacology and physiologic disposition”. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry46 (3 Pt 2): 14–9. PMID 3871765.
  137. ^ Pato MT, Murphy DL, DeVane CL (June 1991). “Sustained plasma concentrations of fluoxetine and/or norfluoxetine four and eight weeks after fluoxetine discontinuation”. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology11 (3): 224–5. doi:10.1097/00004714-199106000-00024PMID 1741813.
  138. ^ Baselt R (2008). Disposition of Toxic Drugs and Chemicals in Man (8th ed.). Foster City, CA: Biomedical Publications. pp. 645–48.
  139. ^ Wong DT, Bymaster FP, Engleman EA (1995). “Prozac (fluoxetine, Lilly 110140), the first selective serotonin uptake inhibitor and an antidepressant drug: twenty years since its first publication”. Life Sciences57 (5): 411–41. doi:10.1016/0024-3205(95)00209-OPMID 7623609.
  140. Jump up to:a b Wong DT, Horng JS, Bymaster FP, Hauser KL, Molloy BB (August 1974). “A selective inhibitor of serotonin uptake: Lilly 110140, 3-(p-trifluoromethylphenoxy)-N-methyl-3-phenylpropylamine”. Life Sciences15 (3): 471–9. doi:10.1016/0024-3205(74)90345-2PMID 4549929.
  141. Jump up to:a b Breggin PR, Breggin GR (1995). Talking Back to ProzacMacmillan Publishers. pp. 1–2ISBN 978-0-312-95606-6.
  142. ^ Swiatek J (2 August 2001). “Prozac’s profitable run coming to an end for Lilly”The Indianapolis Star. Archived from the original on 18 August 2007.
  143. ^ “Electronic Orange Book”. Food and Drug Administration. April 2007. Archived from the original on 20 August 2007. Retrieved 24 May 2007.
  144. ^ Simons J (28 June 2004). “Lilly Goes Off Prozac The drugmaker bounced back from the loss of its blockbuster, but the recovery had costs”Fortune Magazine.
  145. Jump up to:a b Class S (2 December 2002). “Pharma Overview”. Retrieved 15 June 2009.
  146. ^ “Lilly Menstrual drug OK’d – Jul. 6, 2000” 6 July 2000. Archived from the original on 5 May 2016. Retrieved 3 March 2017.
  147. ^ Mechatie E (1 December 1999). “FDA Panel Agrees Fluoxetine Effective For PMDD”International Medical News Group.
  148. ^ Herper H (25 September 2002). “A Biotech Phoenix Could Be Rising”Forbes.
  149. ^ Petersen M (2 August 2001). “Drug Maker Is Set to Ship Generic Prozac”The New York Times.
  150. ^ “Patent Expiration Dates for Common Brand-Name Drugs”Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 20 July 2007.
  151. Jump up to:a b c Spartos C (5 December 2000). “Sarafem Nation”Village Voice. Retrieved 3 March 2017.
  152. ^ “Galen to Pay $295 Million For U.S. Rights to Lilly Drug”Dow Jones Newswires in the Wall Street Journal. 9 December 2002.
  153. ^ Murray-West R (10 December 2002). “Galen takes Lilly’s reinvented Prozac”Telegraph.
  154. ^ Petersen M (29 May 2002). “New Medicines Seldom Contain Anything New, Study Finds”The New York Times.
  155. ^ Vedantam S (29 April 2001). “Renamed Prozac Fuels Women’s Health Debate”The Washington Post.
  156. Jump up to:a b “Top 200 Generic Drugs by Units in 2010” (PDF). Drug Topics: Voice of the Pharmacist. June 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 December 2012.
  157. ^ Macnair P (September 2012). “BBC – Health: Prozac”. BBC. Archived from the original on 11 December 2012. In 2011 over 43 million prescriptions for antidepressants were handed out in the UK and about 14 per cent (or nearly 6 million prescriptions) of these were for a drug called fluoxetine, better known as Prozac.
  158. ^ Jack RH, Hollis C, Coupland C, Morriss R, Knaggs RD, Butler D, et al. (July 2020). Hellner C (ed.). “Incidence and prevalence of primary care antidepressant prescribing in children and young people in England, 1998-2017: A population-based cohort study”PLOS Medicine17 (7): e1003215. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1003215PMC 7375537PMID 32697803.
  159. ^ Hughes SR, Kay P, Brown LE (January 2013). “Global synthesis and critical evaluation of pharmaceutical data sets collected from river systems”Environmental Science & Technology47 (2): 661–77. Bibcode:2013EnST…47..661Hdoi:10.1021/es3030148PMC 3636779PMID 23227929.
  160. ^ Stewart AM, Grossman L, Nguyen M, Maximino C, Rosemberg DB, Echevarria DJ, Kalueff AV (November 2014). “Aquatic toxicology of fluoxetine: understanding the knowns and the unknowns”. Aquatic Toxicology156: 269–73. doi:10.1016/j.aquatox.2014.08.014PMID 25245382.
  161. Jump up to:a b Sumpter JP, Donnachie RL, Johnson AC (June 2014). “The apparently very variable potency of the anti-depressant fluoxetine”Aquatic Toxicology151: 57–60. doi:10.1016/j.aquatox.2013.12.010PMID 24411166.
  162. Jump up to:a b c Brooks BW, Foran CM, Richards SM, Weston J, Turner PK, Stanley JK, et al. (May 2003). “Aquatic ecotoxicology of fluoxetine”. Toxicology Letters. Hot Spot Pollutants: Pharmaceuticals in the Environment. 142 (3): 169–83. doi:10.1016/S0378-4274(03)00066-3PMID 12691711.
  163. ^ Mennigen JA, Stroud P, Zamora JM, Moon TW, Trudeau VL (1 July 2011). “Pharmaceuticals as neuroendocrine disruptors: lessons learned from fish on Prozac”. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part B: Critical Reviews14 (5–7): 387–412. doi:10.1080/10937404.2011.578559PMID 21790318S2CID 43341257.
  164. ^ Daughton CG, Jones-Lepp TL, eds. (2001). Pharmaceuticals and Care Products in the Environment: Scientific and Regulatory IssuesACS Symposium Series. Vol. 791. Washington, DC, US: American Chemical Society (ACS). pp. xvi+396. doi:10.1021/bk-2001-0791ISBN 978-0-8412-3739-1ISSN 0097-6156.
  165. ^ Martin JM, Saaristo M, Bertram MG, Lewis PJ, Coggan TL, Clarke BO, Wong BB (March 2017). “The psychoactive pollutant fluoxetine compromises antipredator behaviour in fish”. Environmental Pollution222: 592–599. doi:10.1016/j.envpol.2016.10.010PMID 28063712.
  166. ^ Barry MJ (21 April 2014). “Fluoxetine inhibits predator avoidance behavior in tadpoles”. Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry96 (4): 641–49. doi:10.1080/02772248.2014.966713S2CID 85340761.
  167. ^ Painter MM, Buerkley MA, Julius ML, Vajda AM, Norris DO, Barber LB, et al. (December 2009). “Antidepressants at environmentally relevant concentrations affect predator avoidance behavior of larval fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas)” (PDF). Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry28 (12): 2677–84. doi:10.1897/08-556.1PMID 19405782S2CID 25189716. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 February 2019.
  168. ^ Mennigen JA, Lado WE, Zamora JM, Duarte-Guterman P, Langlois VS, Metcalfe CD, et al. (November 2010). “Waterborne fluoxetine disrupts the reproductive axis in sexually mature male goldfish, Carassius auratus”. Aquatic Toxicology100 (4): 354–64. doi:10.1016/j.aquatox.2010.08.016PMID 20864192.
  169. ^ Schultz MM, Painter MM, Bartell SE, Logue A, Furlong ET, Werner SL, Schoenfuss HL (July 2011). “Selective uptake and biological consequences of environmentally relevant antidepressant pharmaceutical exposures on male fathead minnows”. Aquatic Toxicology104 (1–2): 38–47. doi:10.1016/j.aquatox.2011.03.011PMID 21536011.
  170. ^ Mennigen JA, Sassine J, Trudeau VL, Moon TW (October 2010). “Waterborne fluoxetine disrupts feeding and energy metabolism in the goldfish Carassius auratus”. Aquatic Toxicology100 (1): 128–37. doi:10.1016/j.aquatox.2010.07.022PMID 20692053.
  171. ^ Gaworecki KM, Klaine SJ (July 2008). “Behavioral and biochemical responses of hybrid striped bass during and after fluoxetine exposure”. Aquatic Toxicology88 (4): 207–13. doi:10.1016/j.aquatox.2008.04.011PMID 18547660.
  172. Jump up to:ab
  173. Jump up to:abcde
  174. Jump up to:a b c Solsona SP, Montemurro N, Chiron S, Barceló D, eds. (2021). Interaction and Fate of Pharmaceuticals in Soil-Crop Systems. Handbook of Environmental Chemistry. Vol. 103. Cham, SwitzerlandSpringer International Publishing. pp. x+530. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-61290-0ISBN 978-3-030-61289-4ISSN 1867-979XS2CID 231746862.
  175. ^ MacPherson M (2 September 1990). “Prozac, Prejudice and the Politics of Depression”The Washington PostArchived from the original on 3 September 2021. Retrieved 23 April 2018.
  176. ^ Duquette A, Dorr L (2 April 2010). “FAA Proposes New Policy on Antidepressants for Pilots” (Press release). Washington, DC: Federal Aviation Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. Archived from the original on 14 January 2012. Retrieved 10 February 2012.
  177. ^ Office of Aerospace Medicine; Federal Aviation Administration (2 December 2016). “Decision Considerations – Aerospace Medical Dispositions: Item 47. Psychiatric Conditions – Use of Antidepressant Medications”Guide for Aviation Medical Examiners. Washington, DC: United States Department of TransportationArchived from the original on 3 May 2017.
  178. ^ “Mental Health GM – Centrally Acting Medication”. Civil Aviation Authority. Retrieved 21 July 2021.
  179. ^ “Class 1/2 Certification – Depression” (PDF). Civil Aviation Authority. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 October 2021. Retrieved 21 July 2021.
  180. Jump up to:ab
  181. Jump up to:ab